Sunday, May 24, 2020
Social Democracy Pluralism By definition - A system of government that allows and encourages public participation, particularly through the activities of pressure groups seeking to influence the government. Traditional socialism has always been associated with an analysis of society that class differences are crucial, in particular the middle classes - those who have gained to the working classes expense - summarised, the two classes interests are in conflict. Social democrats believe society is far more complex than a class interest struggle, and this concept becomes outdated in a pluralist society - a community of individuals and varied interests. Traditional Socialism is arguablyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(E.g. A flourishing state run education system should not preclude private education system existence but merely run alongside each other to provided excellence and choice for education.) New Right conservatives = monetarism - laissez faire - little involvement as possible - neo liberalism Traditional Socialists = Keynesian economics - cause to intervene in economy - ensuring stability and enhancing personal liberty. Prefer these economic management strategies. Social democrats reject such a dogmatic approach - need for a pragmatic pluralist approach to economic policy. It was a member of the Labour Party in 50/60s who suggested economic state control. He ascertained that a pluralist approach to ownership and means of production would be suitable. For example some enterprises are ideal for public ownership but some are necessary for state rule etc. Therefore there should be a mixed economy, with ownership distributed according to circumstances. Individualism ============= Essentially socialism is a doctrine of collectivism - goals are better achieved by combined effort. Social democracy places greater emphasis on individual endeavour. In SD, Collectivism only serves the purpose of improving opportunities and choices for individuals.Show MoreRelatedLabour Party Today2604 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesjustice, liberty, community, cooperation, internationalism, collectivism public ownership . Variants of Socialism: Marxism, Anarchist Socialism, Democratic Socialism, Social Democracy, New Labour? Revolutionary Socialism and Evolutionary Socialism Fundamentalist Socialism and Revisionism Democratic Socialism and Social Democracy Old Labour and New Labour Similarities and differences between Socialism and other ideologies 1945-51 Labour in Power The Labour Manifesto for the 1945 GeneralRead MoreContemporary Theories Of The United States Government1609 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgovernment is a democracy, a system of elected policymakers and an organized government so that policy is created in favor to the people s wants and needs. Many like to categorize this system of government off of its characteristics and patterns. Three theories have been grouped into the three contemporary theories of democracy, where the United States fits into each in a different way. Pluralism reflects the use of groups advocating for a single cause, while Hyperpluralism is Pluralism that did notRead MoreSocial Policy is a Pluralistic Process.973 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinvolvement of the pluralistic process in making of social policy. The essay is divided into four main sections. It will first define the key terms as: social policy, pluralism, welfare; and describe the role of the social policy, pluralism, but also to make connection between this terms and their ideology. It will then go on to consider how social policy gets made; it can assess the extent to which different ideas actually become social policy. The different models will help to judgeRead MorePluralism As An Ethical Imperative For A Democratic Communication1126 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPluralism as an ethical imperative for a democratic communication The concepts of civil rights and citizenship are rooted in the Enlightenment and the liberal revolutions of the 18th Century, in which the individual was at the core of the intellectual, philosophical, and political concern. In that sense, these ideas should be historically and intellectually reviewed rather than naturalized as the only way to organize social life. Actually, the Westernized nature of this tradition cannot be neglectedRead MoreCritically Assess the Pluralist and Marxist Views of the State1553 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhilst pluralism and Marxism are said to have developed from liberalism and socialism respectively (through criticising or expanding on those ideologies) thereby both appearing on the left of the left-right economic scale, a great part of their theories are indeed notably different, if not completely in contrast with each other. However, if we look closely at these theories, the one similarity, often overlooked by critics, is the fact that both offer a criti que of the state despite the fact thatRead MoreThe New Negro, By Alain Locke1707 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThroughout Alain LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s works Ã¢â¬Å"Values and Imperatives,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Pluralism and Intellectual Democracy,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Cultural Relativism and Ideological Peace,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The New Negro,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Harlem,Ã¢â¬ I found there to be a number of reoccurring themes, such as absolutes, imperatives, values, and relativism and their place in pluralism. I am going to be focusing on all the aforementioned themes and showing how they are all intertwined into the principles of pluralism. What is an absolute? In Ã¢â¬Å"Values and Imperatives,Ã¢â¬ LockeRead MoreLevels and Spheres of Business Power1726 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespolitical power could be more accurately described by the theory of Democratic Pluralism to be discussed later. Yet by the late 1960s, Marxist ideas experienced something of a revival and writers such as Ralph Miliband aimed to rehabilitate the Marxist theory of the ruling class. According to Miliband, capitalism had not undergone very significant changes since the 19th Century and theories of post-capitalism and democratic pluralism were themselves not accurate. Miliband recognised that the BourgeoisieRead MoreLiberal Pluralism Vs. Modern Society Essay1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPrior to engaging with the examples is is necessary to outline the characteristics of the two political economy paradigms. Liberal-Pluralism is relatively optimistic in its perspectives of capitalist society. Several different interest groups compose society, according to Liberal-pluralism (Louw, 14-15) and within that society, Media can be considered an agent of democracy because the relationship between media and audience is seen as even, in that, media requires large audiences to generate revenueRead MorePolitical T heory: Pluralism, Corporatism and Public Choice1716 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTopic 2: Political Theory: Pluralism, Corporatism and Public Choice Pluralism is a political theory that related to the acknowledgement for diversification that exist in society. Everyone has different views and appreciation for different value in life. Pluralism is a sign of theoretical standpoint on state ad power as well as resources. It depends on how it will be distributed in democratic state like United States of America (USA). Two famous name in mentioned by Manley (1983) in his articleRead MoreImpact Of Globalization On Journalism On A Global Scale1677 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPower and democracy play an extremely large role in media industries as well as spatial, economic and political inequalities. To understand this concept cultural labour, indigenous media practises as well as impacts of neoliberalism will need to be addressed to establish the impact of intensifies market forces on journalism on a global scale. (Lechner, 2002) Neoliberalism is the political monetary standard of our time- it alludes to the approaches and techniques whereby a relative handful of private
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 927 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2019/06/26 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: French Revolution Essay Did you like this example? Introduction The start of the French Revolution was regarded by many as a new beginning and full of hope. People felt that it represented an age of equality and freedom. However, this event was actually marked by violent events and injustice. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1804" essay for you Create order Rise of a new dictator, Napoleon Bonaparte Those who took part this event only expected a moderate change Their attempts actually lead to a severe and dramatic conclusion with the kings execution and Frances formation of a republic. Changes were to occur within the revolution and within the life of France altogether. The overthrowing of the government leads to a decline of upper classes Middle classacquired wealth and influence PeasantsFreed from troubles During this time, the Roman Catholic Church lost most of its power This event was commonly divided into three stages First stage (1789-1795)Rapid development from mediu2m to severe conflict to the ruling classes Second stage (1795-1799)return to caution and conservatism Final stage (1799)Napoleon takes the title of first consul II.The Aims and Domestic problems of French politicians (1789-91) Long Term Causes of the French Revolution Before the Revolution, Louis XIV also known as the Sun King (1638-1715) and Louis XV (1710-74) had ruled the country for over 130 years. France had been a monarchy for most of its time The Power of the King, the Nobles and the Church Limited game selection Limited bonus and promotion offers No Live Chat and 24/7 Customer Support Regional Divisions and Financial Troubles Power of the throne was passed to King Louis XVI who happened to be more enlightened than previous generations King kept his authority with few limitations Certain classes had more privilege than others Nobles had considerable privileges which included low taxes Middle classes only existed in small percentages and had some privileges Peasants suffered the most as the burden of taxes mainly fell upon them Church supported the monarchy using its power and defy anyone that would go against and challenge them The most serious problem, however, was the countrys financial debt. Diverse regions made France a challenging country to rule and govern This created distinction between the north and south of France as these regions differed in language, culture, and law. Some places strongly guarded their traditional rights Local institutions had to record issued laws by the king To make situations worse, France depended hugely on agriculture. The ongoing wars were proven to be expensive to pay off High taxes were imposed upon the rich Was defeated by the upper class and the Church who used their privileges to defend against the reform In the end, tradition prevented the kings taxation The Enlightenment Poor harvests over time impacted the country greatly resulting in food shortages and inflation. This resulted in many falling into poverty and starvation The particular situation influenced and contributed significantly to the outbreak of the French Revolution The queen who disfavored at that time, was accused and viewed as uncaring for the people suffering. Short-term Causes of the French Revolution The Age of Enlightenment was a philosophical movement in the 17th and 18th centuries This influential movement supported many new ideas about the government and the people Lead by intellectuals and philosophers Challenged and questioned the idea of monarchy and motivated the revolution Finally the King decides to take action by calling upon a meeting in attempt to fix the countrys economic problems The assembly was composed of three estates; The First Estate: 10,000 the clergy, high leveled in Church hierarchy, chosen informally by other clergy (1%) The Second Estate: 400,000 the nobility, informally elected, some chose to support the third estate, however most refused (2%) The Third Estate: 500,000,000 everyone else, (also known as Bourgeoisie), Ideas represented concerns of the middle classes, hoped that their demands would change the ways of how the tax system worked Each estate had an even amount of votes They could join together to outvote the other estate The Start of the Revolution During the meeting, King Louis XVI suggested each Estate to compose a list of their grievances All agreed upon a need for a constitution, liberty of the press, and an end to internal trade barriers However, the upper classes refused to give up their tax privileges due to tradition The King himself was hesitant to act leading to indecisiveness The meeting ended in a failure due to the issues that occurred The National Assembly and the Tennis Court Oath As a result of the kings lack of leadership and the refusal of the upper classes to give in their privileges, the Third Estate decides to leave the Estate Generals. They decide to go independent and leave from the Estates General to form their own assembly. Some upper classes that agreed with reform had joined the assembly as well This independent group was called the National Constituent Assembly. This angered the King where he took it as a challenge to his powers He had commanded that the assembly was to be shut down and locked away He ended up using his powers to repeal all the acts and decisions made in the Assembly First major rebellion against the king Honore Gabriel Riquetti, Count of Mirabeau was an example to this. Was a nobleman who decided to join the Third Estate and agreed with them Locked out of their own assembly, members instead, turn over to a new place at a tennis court to further uphold their meetings. There, 576 participants had sworn an oath stating that they will never separate until a new France constitution had been established. This was known as the Tennis Court Oath
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
This story, in all honesty, did not entertain me or stimulate intriguing thoughts. I felt like the author gave a lot of his time to describe the scene and the appearance of characters that there was nothing really going on. I spent most of my time while reading trying to figure out or thinking what certain things looked like rather than anticipating what may be happening next. We will write a custom essay sample on AP Response or any similar topic only for you Order Now Overall this story did not engage me nor hold my interest. I did on the other hand find the way SammyÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude to toward the girls rather baffling because here are these three girls, two of which he mentions are overweight and not on the attractive side, and then Ã¢â¬Å"QueenieÃ¢â¬ whom he points out is too pale but yet in a sense Ã¢â¬Å"eye candyÃ¢â¬ . It was strange how he felt a pull towards them as soon as he noticed them and felt the need to quit his job and become their self proclaimed hero. Was he just as strange or just someone who really needs the attention? Sammy meets the need of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s standards that may be classified as a normal and average teenage boy. He works, is easily distracted, and has a keen interest in girls. With SammyÃ¢â¬â¢s vernacular and his actions he comes off as awkward by the time the story ends. He describes the girls the best way he knows how but uses a lot of similes and metaphors instead of just stating what one of their skin looks likes or what her body looks like. And when he describes the shoppers he makes them seem like they are suffering from oppression. As if they are they because they have to be just like he is there because he has no choice. And when something goes wrong or something out of the ordinary happens, like him quitting, they seem lost at what to do next. Just like the customers/shoppers when Sammy said Ã¢â¬Å"I quitÃ¢â¬ , he was not expecting it and was lost himself. And because he decided to quit out of nowhere to be an uncertified hero for these girls that he may possibly never see again, he knows he more than likely cannot get his job back and without that job, how is he suppose to survive out in the world with no money? I think the story endorses personal values. And the value of appearance is highly criticized because Sammy talks about how unattractive two out of three of the girls are based off his opinion which does not matter to these girls who may value their appearance and feel comfortable in every aspect of their bodies. SammyÃ¢â¬â¢s actions to quit his job were stupid. He did not need to quit his job and try to be a hero to get their attention. He could of stood up for them without using Ã¢â¬Å"I quitÃ¢â¬ especially after the girls already make their way to the door and possibly unaware of what he is doing for them. In a way he came off as someone who needs to make a scene to be heard instead of just speaking with assertiveness. In a way this story has no point. It is a great example of realistic fiction. With the way certain descriptions laid out how the store may and even SammyÃ¢â¬â¢s uniform may look. It was believable. How to cite AP Response, Papers
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Investment Advisory Services for Design Effective Investment Plan. Answer: Introduction Investment advisory services in rapidly getting popularity as the investment advisors play important role in guiding the investors to design effective investment plans by providing essential expertise to the investors so that the investors investment potentiality use to be improved. The investment advisors greatly contribute to the investors by minimizing the risks of investments as well as to maximize the return from the investment (Chong, 2004). The advisors use to make several different strategies as per the need of the investors and the strategies help the investors to optimize the investment profit and at the same time the strategies are helpful to minimize the investment risk. The equity or stock market is extremely volatile and highly risk prone investment as there are several factors, which influence the fluctuations of the stock market. Therefore, the investment advisors should have the required knowledge about the potential risks of the investment (Cornell, 2011). Besides t hey should have adequate knowledge of market, the potential of the market, about the several investment components of the market and the risks and potentiality of the investment components so that they can suggest the clients most effective investment option as per their requirements, which best suited to the investors profile. Main context Investment philosophy and strategy Investment policy is defined as the set of the principles that shapes and informs the individuals decision making process and thereby it also helps in the creation of appropriate investment philosophies for the individuals. The investment philosophy includes value investing, growth investing, and socially responsible investing with the technical investing process (Fabozzi and Markowitz, 2011). The investment policy helps in the formation of the coherent thinking of the markets with thereby considering the various types of the mistakes and also helps in the creation of belief with the consideration of the investor behavior. With the consideration of the brief introduction, an investment policy is seemed to be defined as the generation of the new strategies with the removal of the old ones. The ingredients of the investment philosophy determine the various steps that are the investment policies and thereby the investment policies are also view with the enhancement of the learning provi ding the view of human frailty (Elliott and Elliott, 2008). The generation determines the tactical views of the market with judging the efficiency of the market. It can be only seemed to be possible with the creation of foundation for the investment policy and thereby the strategies that are created reflect the beliefs. The categorization of the investment philosophies helps in the creation of market timing versus asset selection and thereby the activist investing with the passive investing and the time horizon (Bower and Gilbert, 2005). The investment policy helps in the creation of the market timing strategies, asset selectors and the arbitrage based strategies. The asset selectors help in the creation of chartists and value investors and the growth with the investors increment. The investment policy helps in the enhancement of the investment policy with the various steps that are the acquiring the tools of the trade, development of the point of view with about the market work and the break down work and the philosophy provision with providing the best fit for you. The tradeoff between risk and the return with the evaluation of the risk and thereby the models are measured for the enhancement of the qualitative measure. The traditional usage of the quantitative measures is indicated by the measurement of the risks in the terms of the volatility and the consideration of the standard deviation (Hiriyappa, 2008). The deviation also helps in the creation of the strategies in order to mitigate the risk factors regarding the investments made. The investments are made in such a way so that the risks are arranged with the consideration of the low risks and thereby the measurement of the objectives regarding the portfolio increases. The increment of the current income helps in the achievement of the goal with the enhancement of the policies and thereby the reduction of the volatile risks in seen in the case (Holton, 2012). The hedging process is also planned in the period of the investment which seemed to be a part of the strategy. The investment strateg y also helps in the creation of the appropriate management process with the usage of the SPI features (Jones, 2011). The bull and the bear of the market determines the increment of the profit with the increment of the risk factors and the bear determines the decrement of the profit with the decrement of the risk regarding the investments made in the market. These are the strategies that are planned for the appropriate creation of the investment portfolio with thereby helps in the enhancement of the return per annum. Portfolio Components The amount of fund that need to be manage = $1,000,000 LICs, ETPS and Shares Amount of money invested in shares Minimum = $1,000,000 * 40% = $4, 00,000 No maximum, it will depends on invested amount in shares as 50% of share exposure should be hedged Individual company shares Maximum = $1,000,000 * 10% = $100,000 At maximum level could invest in only 9 companies 1000 shares is minimum purchase parcel and purchased shares should be multiple of 100 Brokerage cost is excluded assuming that it is being externally covered. Selling shares that is being not purchased by the client should be purchase with the hope of falling price of share over the period (Stittle and Wearing, 2008). Short selling Selling shares that the client had not yet purchased but buying them back with the hope of falling share prices over the period. Short selling ensures that sufficient cash is available in CMT to repurchase the shares at the end of the period. The short sales of AMP limited 10,000 shares @5.17. It represents cash inflow and should be held for repurchase of amount $51,700 in October. Future contracts and options SPI future contract will provide an option to hedge the portfolio and speculating on change in market index by using SPI future contracts traded on ASX. Acting as a buyer or seller of SPI 200 contract of December 2016 Current trading value is 5,336 A settlement account should be open at $10,000 per 200 SPI contract. Purchasing future contract would give exposure to the investment value of ($25*5336*5)= $667000 will require investment margin of ($10,000*5)= $50,000 Contract price of SPI represents $25 value change SPI Options SPI option allow to hedge the market index change SPI option is similar to the future contracts excepts they are not contractual The client has to pay purchase premium and provide margin account with the future contract Option value is (SPI value *$25) per contract Purchase premium is (premium *$25) per contract 5 SPI 200 purchase call option will give exposure to investment value of (5,336*5*$25)= $6677000 and would cost premium of (5*$49200$$25)= $61500 Investment in cash management trust Total investment in CMT Minimum = $0 Maximum = $1,000,000 * 20% = $200,000 Selection of asset The selection of asset is important in order to create value over the investment. The value of portfolio at the end of the period The value of the portfolio today The client can select assets on the basis of: Price of shares and performances over the period of time Fundamental factors (dividends, beta, NTA, P/E ratio) News announcements Economic conditions that may suit particular industries or companies It applies equally to ETFs, LICs and future and options Situations Expect increase in share price over next 3 months Purchasing share, ETP or LIC directly Purchasing call options on underlying share Purchasing 200 SPI future contracts or 200 SPI call option if in general market will fall Expect decrease in the share price over next 3 months Purchasing put options on underlying share Short selling the shares Selling 200 SPI futures contract or purchasing 200 SPI if in general market will fall Purchases - Equity Shares Cost ($) ($) BlueScope steel (10,000@$6.47) 64700 Fortescue Metals Group (20,000@$3.63) 72600 Newcrest Mining (3,000@$24) 72000 Treasury Wine Estates (7,000@$9.28) 64,960 Dominos Pizza Enterprises (1,000@$68.82) 68,820 Aristocrat Leisure (5,email@example.com) 67,200 Cimic Group (2,000@$35.95) 71,900 REA Group (1,000@$59.23) 59,230 Cochlear (600@$121.29) 72,774 Vocus Communication (6,000@$8.42) 50,520 664704 Short Sales- Equity Shares Santos (5,000@$4.63) 23,150 BHP Billiton (2,000@$19.09) 38,180 Ansell (2,000@$18.54) 37,080 Woolworths (1,000@$20.74) 20,740 Woodside Petroleum (1,000@$26.64) 26,640 -145,790 ETPs and LICs Platinum Capital (30,000@$4.63) 48,300 WAM Capital (20,000@$2.23) 44,600 SPDR ASX/SP 200 Fund (1,000@$49.14) 49,140 I Shares SP 500 ETF Fund (250@$282.03) 70,508 Beta Shares Gold Bullion ETF (5,000@$14.14) 70,700 283,248 Hedged Position for the ASX Equity Investments 200 SPI Futures contract value =5336*$25=$133,400 Sell 200 SPI future contract on 4 dec @5336 40000 40000 Cash Investment in the Cash Management Trust Cash Holding 157838 1000000 Brief explanation The investment profile can be designed with potential equity securities of listed investment companies, besides this, exchange traded fund such as exchange traded gold fund, SP/ASX 200 - PRICE INDEX which are potential investment tools and provide effective investment option to the investors as per the requirement of the investors(Knill, 2010). The particular investor of the case study want to invest the money $1000, 000 in growth market thus can achieve considerable growth of the fund. His main requirement is to invest around 40% of the total investment into the physical equity investments in the highest quality securities in order to ensure the profitability of the investment. The top quality shares are usually high performance share and assured a certain guarantee of the returns. Means, if there is not any big changes happened then the companies equity will provide significant amount of profits to the investors (Mahone et al., 2009). Besides this, investors will be recommended to invest in Bullion market in gold ETF as the bullion has huge potential and as the investment will be for long term thus, the potentiality of the gold fund will be greater. The company must not invest more than 10% of total investment in a particular share or equity, because in this case the risk can increased as if the performance of the share declined then the investor has to face substantial amount of loss thus the investor has to divided his/her investment profile in several different parts so that the risk can be divided and thus the risk can be managed (Wolf, 2008). Besides this the investors can invest in the Australian direct share investment components which are usually less risk prone and high growth investment tools as by the investment tools the company investment fund will be improved significantly and thus the potentiality of the investment portfolio will be enhanced substantially (Holton, 2012). The investor can invest in equity index futures which are high growth fund in order to increase the investment opportunity of the investment portfolio of the company and thus the company can provide additional finance facilities to the employees of the company, which help the employees in their retirement plan. The investor can invest in future and option investment tools in order to mitigate the risk of the investment as these are the tools, which help the investors in hedging, which minimize the risk of the investment so that the companys investment prospects will be improved(Wong, 2011). Several effective strategies bull spread or cover call as well as butterfly strategies can be applied, which effectively reduce the risks of the investment as well as improve the potentiality of the investment. Conclusion The decisions to make investment in the companies are very critical and crucial. Therefore, it is very important for the investors to determine and analyze the financial performance of a company. The share price of companies varies and fluctuates in the business environment. Therefore, it becomes important for the investors to take decision in which companies they should invest in order to get maximum returns. The new client should take decision on the basis of the performance of the companies. The main focus of the investors is to earn maximum profits and take appropriate investment decision. The investment portfolio of the investor shows that the performance of SP/ASX 200 index had the closing value of around 5,388.50 as on 13/7/2016. The investment decision of the client is appropriate and high profit earning is the main focus. References Bower, J. and Gilbert, C. (2005).From resource allocation to strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chong, Y. (2004).Investment risk management. Chichester, West Sussex, Eng.: John Wiley Sons. Cornell, B. (2011). Invited Editorial Comment.The Journal of Portfolio Management, 37(4), pp.3-5. Elliott, B. and Elliott, J. (2008).Financial accounting and reporting. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Fabozzi, F. and Markowitz, H. (2011).The theory and practice of investment management. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley Sons. Hiriyappa, B. (2008).Investment management. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers. Holton, R. (2012).Global finance. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Jones, P. (2011).Strategy mapping for learning organizations. Farnham, Surrey: Gower Pub. Knill, A. (2010). Does Foreign Portfolio Investment Reach Small Listed Firms?.European Financial Management, p.no-no. Mahone, A., Woo, C., Williams, J. and Horowitz, I. (2009). Renewable portfolio standards and cost-effective energy-efficiency investment.Energy Policy, 37(3), pp.774-777. Stittle, J. and Wearing, B. (2008).Financial accounting. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications. Wolf, M. (2008).Fixing global finance. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. Wong, M. (2011).The risk of investment products. Singapore: Hackensack, NJ.
Wednesday, April 1, 2020
Childhood obesity is not merely an issue in the United States- it is an epidemic. The number of overweight and obese children in America has increased at an alarming rate over the past years, and there is no chance of it slowing down unless action is taken. One out of three children is considered overweight or obese. A fast-food craze has swept over the country, consequentially leaving a trail of poor nutrition. Fast-food corporations seem to be encouraging children to consume regular amounts of unhealthy foods by giving away toys with the purchase of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s meal. Televisions, computers, and video games, which are considered to be technological necessities, have begun to cloud the importance of exercise. These influences can lead to childhood obesity, which comes with an abundance of negative effects. Obesity puts children at a high risk of developing many serious illnesses. Prevention can be achieved by following a balanced diet and by participating in a healthy amount of physical activity. We will write a custom essay sample on Obesity Is a Problem or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page There are a great deal of causes and negative effects of obesity in children, but fortunately there are also ways to hinder or even discontinue the spread of this crisis. One factor that influences childhood obesity is the limited access to healthy foods. Children raised in low-income backgrounds have a greater risk of becoming obese (Mayo Foundation). Poverty may inhibit some parents from being able to provide their children with exercise and a proper nutritional diet due to a lack of time or money. In United States, the average child spends over three hours each day watching television (eMedicineHealth). Nowadays, many children like to watch TV. After finishing their homework, they run to turn on the TV and watch the latest episode of SpongeBob or Phineas and Ferb. During this time, there are many instant food commercials. It is companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ goals to direct all their efforts in appealing to the youth and children. With fancy packaging and persuading commercials it would be hard for any child to resist the temptations of such an irresistible item like candy and fat packed sweets. Kids are so easy to persuade and unfortunately commercials andÃ advertisements target these young children and make a profit while doing so. In an article entitled TV Food Advertisements and Childhood Obesity by the Health Gal, there was a study that showed overweight and obese children eat more after watching T. V. food advertisements. It found that todays children are the first generation of Americans projected to have shorter lifespan than their parents. This article contains a lot of statistics that help to support its claim of T. V. advertisements influencing childhood obesity, but while T. V. Advertisements are influencing to young children it still can fall back to the parents and their lack of discipline while watching T. V. and eating dinner. Another cause of this problem is linked to the options of food that schools and day cares are giving to the children. Schools are in charge of most of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s education. Most school districts offer students several programs, such as music and art programs, which help children with their learning. It is ironic how schools are teaching students not to eat junk food and eat healthy ones, but at the same time, school cafeterias are serving junk foods. Nowadays, many American families are forced to enroll their children in a daycare at a young age. It can be a hard decision to make because they are putting their child in the hands of strangers. Parents are forced to trust in these facilities and hope their children are being well taken care of. One article in particular entitled Day Care Food May Contribute To Childhood Obesity from the Health Guide magazine, basically relates daycare food to childhood obesity. This article states that nearly 82% of American children under the age of 6 are in daycare. So nutrition, exercise or physical activity and other health issues are all being handled by persons other than the primary parents for a significant number of hours daily. This article is extremely eye-opening and very informative because many parents wouldnt even think about what their children are getting fed when they arent around and just assume that they are getting healthy and nutritious snacks and meals throughout the day. Another important factor that influences childhood obesity is lack of physical activity. Children nowadays are spending more time indoors than did a generation ago. This is due to advancement of technology. Children are now spending time watching TV or playing videogames. They would rather watch their favorite shows and beat the next level of the videogame than play outside. Because children are not burning the calories they are consuming the body fat increases and consequently their weight is affected. Lack of physical activity has contributed to the obesity epidemic. Childhood obesity is thought to not only result from emotional problems, poor nutrition, or lack of financial resources, but also from genetics. Genetics are a cause of obesity in children, because metabolic disorders can be inherited. If one of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s parents is obese, the child has a 50 percent chance of becoming obese as well. If both parents are obese, the child has an 80 percent chance of becoming obese (AACAP). When asked if heredity is a cause of childhood obesity, Mrs. Regenia Bell, a registered dietitian, stated, Ã¢â¬Å"Heredity as far as genetics can play a part. However, itÃ¢â¬â¢s more likely to be the lifestyle a child inherits. Children of obese or overweight parents are much more likely to be overweight or obese. They eat the same foods and mimic the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ level of activity. Ã¢â¬ Obesity cannot be inherited, but disorders that result in obesity can. Hormone imbalances, steroids, and psychological medications can cause childhood obesity, but these occurrences are very rare. Illnesses that prevent children from participating in physical activity can result in obesity on rare occasions. Two of these illnesses are Prader-Willi syndrome and CushingÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome. There are many causes of obesity in children, and with these causes come a great deal of negative effects. Obese children not only suffer from unhealthy weights, but must also contend with many other physical, mental, and emotional ailments. Asthma, type II diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, stroke, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, gallbladder disease, lower body bone and joint problems, osteoarthritis, growth abnormalities, breathing problems such as sleep apnea, certain kinds of cancer, gout, rashes or fungal infections of the skin, and acne are illnesses that obese children are at risk of developing (eMedicineHealth). These effects are very serious physical problems that would likely follow an obese child into adulthood. However, obesity can have a much more devastating effect- death. Around 300,000 people die each year from health problems brought on by obesity (Redbourn). This number is overwhelmingly high. The percentage of children and adolescents who are defined as overweight has more than doubled since the early 1970s. According to the Centers for Disease Control, about 15 percent of children and adolescents are now overweight. Ironically, obesity is among the easiest medical conditions to recognize but most difficult to treat. Overweight children are much more likely to become overweight adults unless they adopt and maintain healthier patterns of eating and exercise. In fact, 30% of adult obesity begins in childhood. Obesity accounts for more than 300,000 deaths a year and the annual cost to society for obesity is estimated at nearly $100 billion. Childhood obesity is a growing problem. When children are born, they have donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any knowledge. It is up to the parents to help their children grow and distinguish right from wrong. If the parents continuously eat unhealthy foods, then children might copy that. If parents eat healthy foods only, then most likely, the children will copy that. Parents should be good role models. The solutions to childhood obesity donÃ¢â¬â¢t require diet plans or any therapy. They are simple enough to be done at home: exercising and eating healthy. One of the main reasons why children are getting obese is because the amount of food they eat and amount of exercise they do donÃ¢â¬â¢t balance. Exercise is not only well to balance our calories intake but it also strengthen and increases our done density, and blood pressure is better controlled. Also children who are physical active are more likely to remain active into adolescence and adulthood preventing many of the health issues mentioned before. Exercise has many other positive affects in our childrens life such as improvement in classroom performance, and mental health. School-aged children should have 60 minutes of or physical activity daily, as Bell suggests this should be a developmental appropriate, enjoyable, and involves a variety of activities. Bell further explains how she developed a number of tips to help promote increased physical activity. She suggests making physical activity fun, Think about things that your child likes to do, whether it is dance, play basketball, or run around the park, incorporate them into your daily routines. She also suggests making physical activity simple so the family and the child dont get frustrated with complicated exercise plans. Also, reason why children donÃ¢â¬â¢t engage in active activities is because they spend more time watching TV and playing videogames. Parents should limit the number of hours spent doing these activities. Eating healthy is key to solving childhood obesity. Schools should not overuse the trust of the parents and feed children junk food because it costs more money. Family has an important role. One article entitled Household Routines Linked to Lower Childhood obesity suggests that there are simple household routines that need to be followed in order to prevent childhood obesity. Eat dinner as a family six or seven times a week, limit the time the child watches T. V. to less than two hours a day, and make sure he or she gets more than 10. 5 hours of sleep a night. The article states that those three simple household routines are associated with an almost 40% reduction in the risk of childhood obesity. Parents are no longer raising families the same as they used to 50 years ago. Both parents are usually having to work outside the home requiring the kids to be in daycare and further causing the family to spend less time together and the parents being tired and overrun with everyday life struggles and stress. The economy has taken a downfall and that has forced many Americans to change their lifestyles. Fast and easy has become part of our lives. Sometimes fast and easy can be a life saver. But in other cases, it is a life destroyer. Childhood obesity is threatening a generation. We need to put a limit on the fast and easy.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Battle of the Bismarck Sea in World War II Battle of the Bismarck Sea -Conflict Dates: The Battle of the Bismarck Sea was fought March 2-4, 1943, during World War II (1939-1945). Forces Commanders Allies Major General George KenneyAir Commodore Joe Hewitt39 heavy bombers, 41 medium bombers, 34 light bombers, 54 fighters Japanese Rear Admiral Masatomi KimuraVice Admiral Gunichi Mikawa8 destroyers, 8 transports, approx. 100 aircraft Battle of the Bismarck Sea -Background: With defeat looming in the Battle of Guadalcanal, the Japanese high command began making efforts in December 1942 to reinforce their position in New Guinea. Seeking to shift around 105,000 men from China and Japan, the first convoys reached Wewak, New Guinea in January and February delivering men from the 20th and 41st Infantry Divisions. This successful movement was an embarrassment to Major General George Kenney, commander of the Fifth Air Force and Allied Air Forces in the Southwest Pacific Area, who had vowed to cut off the island from re-supply. Assessing the failures of his command during the first two months of 1943, Kenney revised tactics and embarked on a rapid training program to ensure better success against maritime targets. As the Allies set to work, Vice Admiral Gunichi Mikawa began making plans to shift the 51st Infantry Division from Rabaul, New Britain to Lae, New Guinea. On February 28, the convoy, consisting of eight transports and eight destroyers assembled at Rabaul. For additional protection, 100 fighters were to provide cover. To lead the convoy, Mikawa selected Rear Admiral Masatomi Kimura. Battle of the Bismarck Sea - Striking the Japanese: Due to Allied signals intelligence, Kenney was aware that a large Japanese convoy would be sailing for Lae in early March. Departing Rabaul, Kimura originally intended to pass south of New Britain but changed his mind at the last minute to take advantage a storm front that was moving along the north side of the island. This front provided cover through the day on March 1 and Allied reconnaissance planes were unable to locate the Japanese force. Around 4:00 PM, an American B-24 Liberator briefly spotted the convoy, but the weather and time of day precluded an attack (Map). The next morning, another B-24 spotted the Kimuras ships. Due to the range, several flights of B-17 Flying Fortresses were dispatched to the area. To help reduce the Japanese air cover, Royal Australian Air Force A-20s from Port Moresby attacked the airfield at Lae. Arriving over the convoy, the B-17s began their attack and succeeded in sinking the transport Kyokusei Maru with the loss of 700 of the 1,500 men on board. B-17 strikes continued through the afternoon with marginal success as the weather frequently obscured the target area. Tracked through the night by Australian PBY Catalinas, they came within range of the Royal Australian Air Force base at Milne Bay around around 3:25 AM. Though launching flight of Bristol Beaufort torpedo bombers, only two of the RAAF aircraft located the convoy and neither scored a hit. Later in the morning the convoy came into range of the bulk of Kenneys aircraft. While 90 aircraft were assigned to striking Kimura, 22 RAAF Douglas Bostons were ordered attack Lae through the day to reduce the Japanese air threat. Around 10:00 AM the first in series of closely coordinated aerial attacks began. Bombing from around 7,000 feet, B-17s succeeded in breaking up Kimuras formation, reducing the effectiveness of the Japanese anti-aircraft fire. These were followed by B-25 Mitchells bombing from between 3,000 and 6,000 feet. These attacks drew the bulk of the Japanese fire leaving an opening for low-altitude strikes. Approaching the Japanese ships, the Bristol Beaufighters of No. 30 Squadron RAAF were mistaken by the Japanese for Bristol Beauforts. Believing the aircraft to be torpedo planes, the Japanese turned towards them to present a smaller profile. This maneuver allowed the Australians to inflict maximum damage as the Beaufighters strafed the ships with their 20 mm cannons. Stunned by this attack, the Japanese were next hit by modified B-25s flying at low-altitude. Strafing the Japanese ships, they also made skip bombing attacks in which bombs were bounced along the surface of the water into the sides of enemy vessels. With the convoy in flames, a final attack was made by a flight of American A-20 Havocs. In short order, Kimuras ships had been reduced to burning hulks. Attacks continued through the afternoon to ensure their final destruction. While the battle raged around the convoy, P-38 Lightnings provided cover from Japanese fighters and claimed 20 kills against three losses. The next day, the Japanese mounted a retaliatory raid against the Allied base at Buna, New Guinea, but inflicted little damage. For several days after the battle, Allied aircraft returned to the scene and attacked survivors in the water. Such attacks were viewed as necessary and were partially in retribution for the Japanese practice of strafing Allied airmen while they descended in their parachutes. Battle of the Bismarck Sea - Aftermath: In the fighting at Bismarck Sea, the Japanese lost eight transports, four destroyers, and 20 aircraft. In addition, between 3,000 and 7,000 men were killed. Allied losses totaled four aircraft and 13 airmen. A complete victory for the Allies, the Battle of the Bismarck Sea led Mikawa to comment a short time later, It is certain that the success obtained by the American air force in this battle dealt a fatal blow to the South Pacific. The success of Allied air power convinced the Japanese that even strongly escorted convoys could not operate without air superiority. Unable to reinforce and re-supply troops in the region, the Japanese were permanently put on the defensive, opening the way for successful Allied campaigns. Selected Sources HistoryNet: Battle of the Bismarck SeaLong Lancers: Battle of the Bismarck SeaPacific Wrecks: Battle of the Bismarck Sea
Thursday, February 20, 2020
How did the Spanish-American War change America's role in the world In what ways did America's global role stay the same after the war - Research Paper Example sÃ¢â¬âin extending our commercial relationsÃ¢â¬âto have with them as little political connection as possible.Ã¢â¬ 1 As a corollary to this principle of non-intervention, or isolationism, America remained steadfast in her support of the freedom struggles and democratic movements of other countries, but refused to become embroiled in war by Ã¢â¬Å"spreading our ideals throughout the world by force of arms.Ã¢â¬ 2Ã This policy came to an end in 1898, with the Spanish-American War. The war originated in the Cuban struggle for independence from Spain that began in 1895. American public sympathy for the revolutionaries was exacerbated by the yellow press, reporting atrocities committed by the Spanish General, Valeriano Weyler. American investments in Cuba and the perception of the strategic importance of the island in Central America, led President McKinley to dispatch the battleship USS Maine to Havana, to pressurize Spain. The mysterious explosion of the Maine in February 1898 was attributed to Spain, and public outrage enabled McKinley to enter the Spanish-American War in April 1898. American victory was declared in August. Under the Treaty of Paris, in December 1898, Cuba became an American Protectorate under the Platt Amendment of 1902, Puerto Rico and Guam were received from Spain as indemnity and the Philippines was ceded to America after the Battle of Manila Bay, for $ twenty million.3 The repercussions of the Spanish-American War led to the annexation of the Philippines, which was made an American colony, after the suppression of the Filipino Insurrection, led by Emilio Aguinaldo. Intellectuals, like Senator Albert Beveridge, used the concept of Ã¢â¬ËManifest Destiny,Ã¢â¬â¢ to justify overseas expansion. Josiah StrongÃ¢â¬â¢s Our Country (1885), and Rudyard KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, Ã¢â¬ËThe White ManÃ¢â¬â¢s BurdenÃ¢â¬â¢ (1899), based on Ã¢â¬ËSocial Darwinian,Ã¢â¬â¢ considered it the Ã¢â¬ËdutyÃ¢â¬â¢ of the Ã¢â¬ËsuperiorÃ¢â¬â¢ Anglo-Saxon race to spread Christian and Democratic values to Ã¢â¬ËbackwardÃ¢â¬â¢ people.